中國整體芳香療法論壇== 順勢療法 - 激發人體固有的自愈能力 == 順勢療法 激發固有的治愈能力 → 順勢療法的 “類似法則”


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主題:順勢療法的 “類似法則”

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順勢療法的 “類似法則”  發帖心情 Post By:2010-3-25 19:45:59 [只看該作者]


史蒂芬·巴雷特(Stephen Barrett)


順勢療法的支持者把其基本原則稱作“類似法則”,“同類可以治愈同類”,即如某物質能夠導致健康人產生某些癥狀,那么該物質就能治愈具這些癥狀的疾病。這種觀念是感應巫術(sympathetic magic)的一種形式,感應巫術類似于吃獅子的心會使人勇敢這種原始觀念。


順勢療法的創始人,塞繆爾·哈內曼(Samuel Hahnemann)醫生,據說他的理論是根據他攝食金雞納樹皮的實驗,金雞納樹皮含有用來治療瘧疾的奎寧。服食之后,他體驗到了與瘧疾同樣的癥狀:口渴、頭腦中有悸動感還有發燒。他確定,藥物治愈疾病的效力來源于它能夠產生同疾病相似的癥狀。他和他的早期信徒用草藥、礦物和其它物質在健康人包括他們自己身上做了驗證,并且保留了詳細的觀察記錄。


驗證過程中報告的癥狀被編成冗長的參考書叫做藥物學(materia medica),被信徒們奉為圣經。然而,大部分的驗證都是在100到200年前做的,當時醫學科學尚處于嬰兒期。那時對健康和疾病的性質,以及對如何進行實驗把原因和結果從巧合中分離出來,都知之甚少。


服食某物后產生癥狀這個事實可以有好多種解釋。在某個具體的日子,許多人都會有很偶然的不愉快的想法和軀體感受。要判斷某個物質是否確切地導致某個癥狀,必須把服食某物質的人同服食對照物質的人加以比較。為了防止偏倚,實驗者和受試者都不能知道吃了什么。


用于編著藥物學書的驗證過程都沒有使用這些方法。服食物質的劑量、時間、紀錄數據的方式等都很不一樣,而且都沒有對照。所以,要確定報告的癥狀是否真的與服食實驗物有關是不可能的。另外,許多癥狀可能被暗示產生。


《實驗藥物學字典》這本常用的三卷一套的書,是由約翰·亨利·克拉克醫生寫的,是說明驗證過程之愚蠢的例子。這本書約有2500頁,描述了服食約 1200種物質后臆想報告的癥狀。許多描述包含100多個述說,意味著癥狀的數目超過20萬。這本書沒有說明這些原始的驗證是什么時候做的、如何做的、以及誰報告了這些詳細的發現。所以不可能認證這些研究是否真的做了,是誰做的,有關發現的報告是否準確。


列出的許多癥狀都很奇怪。Lac felinum有“不能忍受她原來喜愛的蛤蜊的氣味。”Lacrodectus mactans有“可怕的尖叫聲,聲稱她呼吸困難就要死了”。Magnesia sulphurica有“遲鈍”。Oleum animale有“耳朵聽到唱歌聲、叮當聲和嗡嗡聲”。Natrum carbonicum有“早晨匆忙起床”。有些列出的癥狀明顯地發生在身體的一側,比如“左睪丸難受”。所有這些,都想象為對確定病人是否“適用”某種專門藥劑是有用的。


即使這些驗證報告是始終一致的,產生癥狀的物質能夠治愈相同的癥狀也沒有合乎邏輯的道理。通過良好設計過的實驗,沒有任何證據表明“類似法則”在起作用。試驗物質作用的真正途徑是試驗它是否對病人有幫助。這需要臨床試驗,把服食試驗物質的人群與沒有服食的人群相比較。沒有一個順勢療法的產品被證明是有效的,絕大多數的產品甚至從來沒有進行過臨床試驗。



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  發帖心情 Post By:2010-3-25 19:46:52 [只看該作者]

原文:


Homeopathy's "Law of Similars"
Stephen Barrett, M.D.


Proponents call homeopathy's defining principle the "Law of Similars." ("Like cures like.") This holds that substances that cause healthy people to get symptoms can cure diseases that have these symptoms. This idea is a form of "sympathetic magic" similar to the primitive idea that eating the heart of a lion will make a person brave.


Homeopathy's founder, Samuel Hahnemann, M.D., is said to have based his theory on an experience in which he ingested cinchona bark, the source of quinine used to treat malaria. After taking it, he experienced thirst, throbbing in the head, and fever -- symptoms common to malaria. He decided that the drug's power to cure the disease arose from its ability to produce symptoms similar to the disease itself. He and his early followers then conducted "provings" in which they administered herbs, minerals, and other substances to healthy people, including themselves, and kept detailed records of what they observed.


The symptoms reported during provings have been compiled into lengthy reference books called materia medica, which proponents regard as gospel. However, most of the provings were done between 100 and 200 years ago, when medical science was in its infancy. Very little was known about the nature of health and disease or about how to conduct experiments that separate cause and effect from coincidence.


The fact that a symptom occurs after taking a substance can have several explanations. During a typical day, most people experience occasional unpleasant thoughts and bodily sensations. To determine whether a substance actually causes a symptom, it would be necessary to compare people who receive the substance with people who receive a control substance. To guard against bias, neither the experimenters nor the test subjects should know who gets which.


The provings used to compile materia medica were not conducted in this manner. There were wide variations in the amounts of substances administered, the timing of the administrations, the way in which data were recorded, and the length of the studies -- and there were no controls. Thus it is impossible to know whether the reported symptoms were actually related to administration of the test substances. In addition, many symptoms may have resulted from suggestibility of the test subjects.

"A Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica," a widely used 3-volume set authored by John Henry Clarke, M.D., illustrates the foolishness involved in provings. The book contains about 2,500 pages that describe the symptoms that supposedly were reported following administration of about 1200 substances. Most descriptive pages contain more than 100 claims, which means that total number of symptoms exceeds 200,000. The book does not indicate when or how the original "provings" were done or who reported most of the specific findings. Thus it would be impossible to examine whether the studies were properly done, who did them, and whether the findings were accurately reported.

Many of the listed symptoms are odd. Lac felinum includes "Cannot bear the smell of clams, of which she is naturally fond." Lacrodectus mactans includes "Screams fearfully, exclaiming that she would lose her breath and die." Magnesia sulphurica includes "stupidity." Oleum animale includes "Singing, tinkling, and buzzing in ears." Natrum carbonicum includes "hurries out of bed in the morning." Some listings include symptoms that occur predominantly on one side of the body, such as "sickening sensation in left testicle." All are supposedly useful in determining whether the patient might "fit" a particular remedy.


Even if the proving reports were consistent, there is no logical reason why substances that could produce symptoms should cure such symptoms. Nor is there evidence from appropriately designed studies that the "law of similars" actually operates. The real way to test something works is to test whether it helps sick people. This requires clinical trials in which people who get the test substance are compared with people who do not. No homeopathic product has ever been proven effective; and the vast majority of products have never even been clinically tested.




我們一直努力在尋找屬于中國專業的芳香療法,并為之奮斗...

芳香療法 - 藉由沉浸在精油的芳香之中

多一些快樂少一些煩惱,以愉悅的心情迎接每一天,用樂觀的心情期待未來

 回到頂部
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